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For a number of years in our High Frequency Extraction Laboratory we have been conducting research work with the use of high frequency energy for extraction of essential oils from vegetal resources. Unlike the classical extraction methods which use different solvents, we offer a brand new method allowing using as a solvent the water contained in the fresh plant itself. Regarding the application of high frequency energy for extracting (or extraction), we have done a series of studies and experiments to discover and define more precisely separate aspects of high frequency field interaction with the target materials. Among other factors, we have studied the phenomenon of the so called polarizing saturation. We have produced three versions of small volume laboratory setups, based on which we have designed and placed into service a semi-commercial super-high frequency extraction unit.
While designing the semi-commercial super-high frequency extraction unit we have developed such brand new methods of unit design and mounting implementation as:
1. Metal resonator
2. Design of super-high frequency systems for raw stock heating in the extraction unit.
3. Design of magnetron cooling system.
4. Extractor teflon container and condenser concept design.
5. Biological shielding system design for the super-high frequency extractor unit.
- One extractor unit loading is up to 40 kg of raw stock
- Power input of 12 kWt
Our super-high frequency laboratory has already obtained samples of such essential oils as laurel oil, eucalyptus oil, geranium oil, etc.
The major line of the Chemical Analysis Laboratory is the analytical procurement of the activities in the super-high frequency and SFE extraction laboratories.
The laboratory specializes on the analysis of the essential oils obtained from vegetal resources of the Republic of Abkhazia. Main sample suppliers are High Frequency SFE Extraction Laboratories which have the semi-commercial units. The laboratory also uses the following extraction units: cold pressing, vapour hydrodistillation, extraction with organic solvents, enfleurage and low-temperature CO2 extraction. Using different methods of extraction in the studies gives the choice of the most suitable methods for obtaining essential oils from vegetal sources of the Republic of Abkhazia on industrial scale to satisfy the needs of medical industry, perfumery and food manufacturing industry. As a vegetal source we use: bay and laurel, eucalyptus, citrus fruit (lemons, oranges, tangerines), cedar, field geranium,roses (essential oil cultivars), jasmine, mint, etc. As analytical characteristics we define: essential oil mass density, refraction coefficients, rotation angles of the polarization plane. For more precise identification of the essential oil components we use vapour-liquid chromatography and combined gas chromatography mass spectrometry. These methods easily define spirits (linalool, geraniol, citroneol, nerol, etc.), various alkylphenols, terpenes (α - and β penens, limonene, various caratiniods, etc.), alkaloids, as well as ketones, aldehydes and organic acids and their derivatives in the medicine compositions.
Combined chromatography mass spectrometry is the most universal, rapid and informative physicochemical method of analysis at present. It is the only method capable to carry out complete qualitative and quantitative analyses of gas, liquid or solid substance solution complex mixtures of organic or inorganic origin.
The use of such expensive analytical equipment will be useful for its application in other spheres of the Republic of Abkhazia as well. For example, this equipment can be successfully used for the needs of Ministry of Internal Affairs in expert chemical studies to test material evidence for the presence of explosives and toxic materials, drugs, as well as for defining the quality of oil and lubricants, and in other emergencies. Also, this unit is useful for the analysis of pesticides and fertilizers in the industrial agriculture; for blood testing for various drug-doping substances in sports medicine; for the analysis of food quality; in environmental impact assessment for the analysis of gaseous and liquid mediums. It is particularly necessary to use such equipment for the analysis of fuel material for air transport in Sukhum Airport. Combined studies, proposals on the extraction of endemic kinds of plants, production of Teflon items for the extractor.
The figures present the trial model of "Commercial SHF-extractor" for extracting essential oils from vegetal sources. Unlike classical extraction process which uses various solvents, here we offer a brand new method of using SHF-energy for extracting appreciable substances from vegetal sources. This allows using as a solvent the water contained in the fresh plant itself.
While designing the Commercial SHF-extractor we have developed brand new methods of design and assembly implementation for this unit.
The raw stock is loaded into the container inside the resonator. We selected Teflon as a material for raw stock container because it is transparent for SHF-energy and withstands temperatures above 100?C. the container is made up of three cylindrical sections, each of which is 500 mm high and 400 mm in diameter. The total volume is 160 litres. The Teflon container rotates with the help of a rotator (drive) which is placed outside the metal resonator. The rotating drive shaft inside the metal frame is fixed on the cross-piece of the container backwall. Container rotation is necessary for effective, uniform absorption of SHF-energy by the raw stock
Once the raw stock is loaded the container is closed by the Teflon lid, then the outer resonator lid is closed and the extractor is almost ready to operate. There is a dielectric tube attached to the resonator lid. This tube on the next fit happens to be connected with the Teflon lid. The resonator vapour flows via this tube into the condenser which is water-cooled. Then the condensate from the condenser flows into a special container. The liquid resulting from the condensation process is a complex mixture of water with dissolved in it salts and water-insolubles including essential oils which come to the surface of the liquid immediately. Essentially the mixture is an extract
The SHF-extractor is a kind of a cylindrical resonator which concentrates all spurious emissions resulting from numerous magnetron flange joints, its filament, etc. This emission is quite large and can make up 5 % and more of the whole voltage generated by 12 magnetrons. That is why we have designed a special biological shielding system from SHF-energy. It represents a cylindrical screen made of fine metal mesh with its cell dimensions 1× 1 mm covering the whole area circumferentially. (The Figure shows the screen covering only the upper part of the extractor). There are graphite sinks under the cylindrical mesh which contribute to the absorption of spurious emissions. All bundled cables pass through a graphite tube which absorbs any unwanted emissions because a big number of power, manipulation, ventilation and other conductors pass from magnetrons through the mesh and the conductors act as a pass for the emission to leave the mesh screen. Mechanically the tubes are placed at both sides of the extractor resonator. The next shielding level belongs to the back and front extractor doors which use special metal gaskets. And finally, vapour output through the front extractor door needed shielding as well. That is why there are graphite tubes, absorbing emission from the resonator completely, worn over the output Teflon tube.
Address: Republic of Abkhazia 384964 Gulripsh Districts Agudzera e-mail:firstname.lastname@example.org